Understanding Shares: What are They | Online Definitive Guide

What are Shares?

A share is a single piece of firm ownership. A public firm can sell investors shares in order to obtain capital. These investors then become equity shareholders in the company. Following that, investors have the chance to receive dividends, the value of which varies based on the company’s share price and share performance overall.

Despite their frequent interchangeability, the phrases “stocks” and “shares” have different meanings when referring to a firm. It all depends on how you talk about a firm and how much ownership you have, despite the fact that this may sound complicated. Let’s take an example where ABC Company issued stock and you bought ten shares. You own 10% of the business if each share is worth 1% of the total. Shares of the stock that the company issued were purchased by you.

You don’t buy stock; instead, you buy shares of a stock, to put it another way. Shares are what you actually purchase, whereas stock is a broader phrase used to describe the financial instruments a corporation provides.


Defining Shares?

In order to raise money when forming a firm, owners may decide to issue stock. Following that, businesses split their stock into shares, which they subsequently sell to investors. These investors are often investment banks or brokers that, in turn, offer the shares to other investors individually or through instruments like a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund.

The same as ownership in a corporation are shares. There is no legal requirement for the corporation to pay back the shareholders in the event that something occurs to the business because they represent ownership rather than debt.

It implies that you have access to your portion of the company’s profits as well as any voting rights associated with your shares as a shareholder. It’s crucial to remember that owning shares in a company does not always entitle you receive goods from the company or give you a voice in how it operates on a daily basis.

Nonetheless, some businesses might pay dividends to their stockholders. Some may choose not to, instead choosing to allocate all earnings to running, expanding, and safeguarding the business’s future.


Types of Shares

Any company can issue shares, but publicly traded companies are more likely to divide their stock into different types of shares. There are basically two types of shares, namely common stock shares and preferred stock shares.

Common Stock Shares

As its name implies, common stock is the most common type of share. If the business is performing well, it comes with the right to earn monthly payments in the form of dividends. These give the buyers, who are the shareholders, a residual claim over the business and its earnings, potentially increasing investment growth through dividends and capital gains.

Additionally, voting rights are attached to common shares, providing shareholders additional power over the company. With the use of these rights, a company’s shareholders can elect directors, vote on particular corporate decisions, and approve the issuance of new stock or dividend payments. Furthermore, pre-emptive rights are a feature of common stock that allows shareholders to purchase additional shares while maintaining their ownership stake in the company when it issues new stock.

But in the event that the company files for bankruptcy, they typically end up at the back of the line in terms of receiving their money back.

Preferred Stock Shares

Preferred stock, also known as preference shares or hybrid securities, is a cross between a bond and a regular share, it offers more benefits and stability to investors. Preferred shares usually don’t offer as much voting rights or market appreciation in value as common shares do. But unlike common stock, this kind of stock usually includes predetermined pay-out requirements, such as a dividend that is paid on a regular basis, which reduces the investment’s risk.

Preferred stockholders receive payment before common shareholders but after bondholders because it has priority over common stock in the event that the company files for bankruptcy and must repay its lenders. When compared to common shares, this priority treatment significantly lowers the risk. There are a range of preferred stocks, including:

  • Cumulative – As long as the company makes a profit it must collect all dividends and pay them to the preferred shareholder, usually at the end of that year.
  • Participating – In addition to fixed dividends, participating stock holders may be able to increase their earnings above the dividend by the company’s profitability.
  • Non-participating – Only pays a fixed dividend.
  • Convertible – Can convert to common shares.
  • Callable – The issuer has the right to redeem the stock at a fixed date for a fixed price.

The types of shares can also be divided into another three different subdivisions, authorised shares, issued shares and outstanding shares.

  • Authorised share is the maximum number of shares that a company’s board of directors is permitted by law to issue.
  • Shares that have been issued are those that have been distributed to the public, staff, or the corporation. A firm will typically not issue all of its shares, resulting in a larger number of authorized shares than issued shares.
  • Shares that have been sold to the general public are known as outstanding shares. As a result, all shares in circulation are authorized and issued, but not all authorized shares are outstanding, issued, or both. Although not every share that is issued will be outstanding, all of them are authorized in the interim.

A company can also choose not to issue all of its shares in order to preserve some control that it would otherwise lose if another interest were to acquire a majority of the shares.


Why invest in shares?

There are a number of reasons an investor or trader might want to invest in shares, such as:

Higher returns. Compared to other asset classes like bonds, precious metals, or real estate, shares may yield larger returns.

Building for the future. A person may be able to diversify their portfolio and increase their savings with shares.

Sense of ownership. A person may feel more a part of something if they own stock in a corporation. Voting on matters pertaining to the company’s future is possible for holders of common stock.

Dividends. Pay-out dividends are provided to shareholders of a successful firm so they can receive a return on their investment without having to sell their stock.

Tax breaks. People who possess stocks and shares may be able to reduce their overall tax obligations in some jurisdictions.


How Shares are Issued and Regulated

Usually, the number of shares that can be granted to the board of directors of a corporation is limited. We refer to this as authorised shares. The quantity of shares sold to shareholders and tallied for ownership purposes is known as issued shares. Thus, a company may issue 8 million of its 10 million authorised shares.

The number of authorised shares affects shareholders’ ownership, thus shareholders have the power to vote to restrict that number as they see fit. Shareholders convene to deliberate and reach a consensus on matters pertaining to the authorization of additional shares. Articles of modification are filed with the state in order to formally propose changes to the authorised number of shares.

Publicly traded corporations list their shares on markets for the general public, usually through an initial public offering (IPO). This is a costly, time-consuming, and strictly regulated procedure where a business must go through stages of fund-raising and regulatory inspection.


Risks involved

Any investment carry risks as does investing in shares. These risks can include:

Volatility – The stock market is integrally volatile.

Losing money – Prices can and do fluctuate, so prospective buyers should always conduct extensive due diligence and never risk more than they can afford to lose.

Credit risk – Holders of common stock are usually the last to get reimbursed if a company goes bankrupt.

Liquidity risks – Even while shares are quite liquid, there may be occasions when a seller is unable to locate a buyer, leaving them in possession of an unwanted asset.

Timing risk – Purchasing or selling a share at the incorrect moment is a possibility. Since each market is unique, the trends it follows will also vary.


Difference between Shares and Stocks

Stocks are frequently used to refer to shares as an asset class in general, whilst shares are used to discuss about the issue of a single firm. Another distinction between stocks and shares is that stocks are used to refer to shares as an asset class.

For example, we could argue that the shares of Company C are considered to be a stock. An investor becomes a shareholder and receives a portion of the earnings when they purchase shares of a company. However, they also take on the risk of bearing losses in the event that the firm does not perform well.

Pros and Cons of Shares

Offers four order executions


Part ownership of a company

Allowed to vote

Can receive dividends

Real-time dealing

Can generate wealth

Easy to buy shares

Various shares to choose from


Unstable market

Dividends are not always paid out

Limited rights

Can lose money

Risks involved

Share market might crash


To raise money for the business, shares are offered for sale to traders and investors. A lot of companies issue stocks and shares when they want to raise money for expansion, R&D, or other commercial prospects. Investors who trade capital for shares of a corporation or other financial asset own units of ownership in these entities.

They can occasionally award shareholder rights including dividend payments and voting rights. They are sold on stock exchanges. Nonetheless, investors run the risk of losing their money because shares can be erratic. For this reason, customers should conduct independent research, keep in mind that prices can fluctuate, and never invest more money than they can afford to lose.

Voting rights and potential rewards through price growth and dividends are made possible by common stock shares. Although preferred stock shares don’t increase in value, they can be redeemed for a good amount and pay dividends on a regular basis.

Although many businesses issue shares, stock exchanges only list the shares of publicly listed corporations.

What is MetaTrader 5 (MT5)? | Online Definitive Guide

What is MT5?

A wide range of tradable financial instruments offered

After the enormously successful MetaTrader 4 (MT4), MetaQuotes released MetaTrader 5 (MT5), their most recent platform. Although MetaTrader 5 (MT5) was designed primarily for currency trading, it has several asset classes in mind. For the modern trader looking to improve their trading experience with a variety of strong and useful new features, as well as practical trading tools and resources, MT5 is now the best multi-asset platform.

The MT5 platform’s proprietary programming language, MQL5, is used to create trading robots, technical indicators, scripts, and function libraries. However, the MQL5 community can also provide a range of trading services to all MT5 customers. You will be able to communicate with other traders by going straight to the community through your trading platform.

Additionally, you can get a skilled programmer to write your technique, build your own unique trading tools and tactics, or download, rent, or buy a variety of trading software. Traders can also purchase VPS (Virtual Private Server) services in the MQL5 marketplace, which will enable them to employ automated techniques continuously even while their trading devices are off.


Defining MetaTrader5

Numerous brokers provide their traders with the robust MT5, which enables them to trade a wide range of assets, including CFDs on forex, stocks, commodities, indices, futures, energy, and cryptocurrencies, with variable leverage and zero slippages, price rejections, or requotes.

The ability to trade whenever and wherever you choose from the convenience of your smartphone or tablet is one of the main advantages of the MetaTrader 5 platform. This is because a trader can trade their preferred assets from any web browser on any device thanks to the Web platform. The MT5 platform also provides copy trading, trading signals, and trading robots. All of these tools and capabilities may be accessed from a single, robust trading platform.

MT5 lets users see charts, stream real-time pricing, and place orders with their broker, just like the majority of other online trading platforms. Among its many features are automatic trading, copy trading, and tools for technical and fundamental research.

The most well-liked aspect of MT5 is its trading robot functionality, also referred to as Expert Advisors or EAs. Without the trader’s involvement, the robots monitor prices and carry out trading operations by adhering to an underlying algorithm.

MT5 offers additional advantages such as a multi-threaded strategy tester, account-to-account fund transfers, and an alert system to be informed about the most recent market developments.

The integrated MQL5 community chat allows traders to interact with one another and exchange trading advice and tactics.


Functions of MT5

The client terminal has an integrated editor and compiler as well as access to a free software, article, and help library. The software allows traders to create custom indicators, scripts, and expert advisors using the proprietary MQL5 scripting language. The main reason for MetaTrader 5’s appeal is because it encourages algorithmic trading.

Pending orders and market orders are the two kinds of trading orders offered by MetaTrader 5. Orders that are pending will only be filled when the price hits a certain threshold. There are four different ways that market orders can be executed: instant, request, market, and exchange:

  • If the order is completed instantly, it will be executed at the price that is shown on the platform. The order will be fulfilled at a known price, however, if there is a lot of volatility and the desired price is not available, a good trading opportunity may be lost.
  • The request execution mode can complete a market order in two steps: first, they can request a price quote, and then they can use that price to determine whether to buy or sell. It takes a trader a few seconds to determine whether the received price is worthwhile to trade.
  • Orders executed via market execution will use the broker’s pricing, regardless of whether it differs from the price shown on the platform. This mode has the benefit of allowing trading without any kind of requotes. However, amid erratic price swings, divergence might increase significantly.
  • In Exchange execution mode, the order is processed by the external execution facility. The trade is executed according to the current depth of market.


How to use MT5

Create an account

To use MT5 with brokers, you’ll first need to create a live account. Next you can set up a live MT5 account from the brokers’ dashboard.

Download MT5

You have to download MT5 after you have created an account on the device you are going to use. The broker will provide you with your log in credentials.

Open a position

When you ready to start trading go to ‘tools’ and click ‘new order’. You’ll be presented with the order window. Depending on what type of trade you are placing, you’ll then be faced with the following options:

  • Instant execution which will enable maximum deviation from the quoted price. To place your trade, click ‘buy’ if you think the market will rise in value, or ‘sell’ if you think it will fall.
  • For a pending order, choose the type of order you want to place, from ‘buy limit’, ‘sell limit’, ‘buy stop’ and ‘sell stop’. You need to select the price level at which you want your order to be triggered. Next you need to check the expiry box to specify a date and time for your order to expire if the market does not reach your ‘at price’. Lastly you clink on ‘place’ when you are ready to place your order.

Monitor and close your positions and pending orders

To monitor your open positions and pending orders open the ‘terminal’ window by clicking ‘view’ in the toolbar and selecting ‘terminal’. Navigate to the ‘trade’ tab. You can close a position or delete a pending order by clicking the small ‘x’ on the far right of the profit column.

Modify stops and limits on open positions

To modify stops or limits on open positions and pending orders, you do the same as in the previous mentioned steps.

Customise MT5 charts

There is a number of tools available to use to customise charts. You can draw on the charts, add indicators or change the timeframe.

  • Draw on charts

To draw on charts, you simply select the object from the toolbar and click on the chart. You can adjust the width and positioning of some objects by moving your mouse as you click on the chart, while others open a separate window in order to do so.

If you want to remove or edit an object, right click on the chart then select ‘objects list’ from the menu. A window will open that displays a list of all the active objects shown on the chart. Select the one you want and click ‘edit’ to customise the indicator settings or ‘delete’ to remove.

  • Add indicators

You can also add indicators to charts by simply dragging your chosen indicator from the ‘navigator’ window and drop it on top of a chart. A window will open where you can customise how the indicator is displayed.

You also have the option to add indicators to a selected price chart using the menu bar. Just click ‘insert’ then ‘indicators’ and choose your chosen indicator from the drop-down menu.

You can right-click inside the chart window and choose “indicators list” from the menu in order to change or remove an indicator that is currently displayed. This will cause a popup to open with a list of every indicator that is currently displayed on the chart. Choose the desired indicator from the list, then click “edit” to change the settings or “delete” to remove them.

  • Change timeframe

A price chart’s timeframe can be altered by performing a right-click on the chart, selecting “timeframe,” and then selecting the desired option from the drop-down menu. The time intervals vary from one minute to one month. Using toolbar buttons, you can easily alter the timeframe of a chosen price chart.

Set up a price alert

Go to the “alerts” tab after opening the “terminal” window to set up a price alert. Within this window, use your right mouse click to bring up the “create” menu. By doing this, the “alert editor” window will open, allowing you to modify your price alert.

View your trade history

To view your trade history, enter the ‘terminal’ window and navigate to the ‘account history’ tab. By right-clicking inside the window and choosing one of the following choices, you can modify the date range. You can choose all history, last three months or last month. You also have the option to choose a custom period where you can type in a date range.

Download trade reports

Simply navigate to the ‘terminal’ window and go to the ‘account history’ tab. Right click within the window then select the option to either ‘save as report’ or ‘save as detailed report’.

Both options will produce a report detailing individual trades plus an account summary. The detailed report includes additional metrics such as drawdown and profit factor.

Pros and Cons of MT5

Offers four order executions


Not limited to built-in tools

Array of powerful analytical trading tools

Support netting and hedging options

Allows copy trading

Market Depth (DOM) is a key advantage

Offers four order executions

Offers trading on any device


MT4 is still the preferred choice

Some of the advanced tools are intimidating to beginner traders

Provides a wide range of instruments that may not apply to all traders

Not always compatible with programmes already created for MT4


MetaTrader 5 (MT5) is a trading platform utilized by lots of traders and brokers. Traders use it to view currency values in real time, place orders, modify orders, and obtain technical and fundamental analysis.

Given that MetaTrader 5 is the most recent version of the MetaTrader platform, one may assume that it is better than MetaTrader 4. However, a greater number of traders continue to using MetaTrader 4. This is due to the fact that the two are truly designed for distinct types of trade. MetaTrader 4 was designed with currency trading in mind, and it does so exceptionally well.

Due to its multi-asset trading functionality, MetaTrader 5 is often preferable when dealing in assets other than currencies. It enables the thorough study of any kind of asset and includes additional order types and indicators.